Fungi associated to Platanus x acerifolia in Uruguay and failure indicators




cankers, hypertrophy, urban trees, tree defects


In the last few years, the interest in keeping the city trees healthy has increased in order to improve their survival and minimize claims due to potential accidents. The pest and diseases, the pollution, and the climate change together with the little genetic diversity of trees in urban areas are some of the factors that contribute to increase the likelihood of death and/or failure of trees in the cities. This work is part of a sanitary and risk of failure assessment of plane street trees (Platanus x acerifolia) carried out between 2019 and 2020. A random sample of 10 city blocks and their 193 plane trees was selected. In these, the presence of cankers, abnormal bark colorations, deformations, and a series of structural attributes that determine likelihood of failure variables were registered. The proportion of individuals with each symptom and the severity main index (SMI) were calculated as a weighted average of the different severity (SEV) levels in the total of evaluated plants. The severity indices were determined according to trunk or branches circumference and the portion of the tree affected (1st, 2nd or 3rd portion from the base). Deformations presented the main incidence (0.6), SMI (1.68) and a correlation with the presence of damages and human injuries. The presence of cankers and reddish bark were the symptoms that most affected the density of the crowns.


Download data is not yet available.


Besoain X, Guajardo J, Camps R. First Report of Diplodia mutila Causing Gummy Canker in Araucaria araucana in Chile. Disease Notes. 2017;101(7):1328. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-12-16-1730-PDN.

Bezerra JDP, Crous PW, Aiello D, Gullino ML, Polizzi G, Guarnaccia V. g Genetic diversity and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae Species Associated with Symptomatic Citrus Plants in Europe. Plants. 2021;10:492. doi: 10.3390/plants10030492.

Carreiro MM, Zippered W. Urban forestry and the eco-city: today and tomorrow. In: Carreir MM, Song YC, Wu J, editors. Ecology, planning and management of urban forests: international perspectives. New York: Springer Publishers; 2008. p. 435-56.

Coelho AP. Evaluación del riesgo de los árboles urbanos: propuesta de un protocolo para Montevideo, Uruguay [doctoral’s thesis]. Montevideo (UY): Universidad de la República, Facultad de Agronomía; 2021. 160p.

Coelho-Duarte AP, Daniluk-Mosquera G, Gravina V, Vallejos-Barra O, Ponce-Donoso M.Tree Risk Assessment: component analysis of six visual methods applied in an urban park. Urban For Urban Green. 2021;59:127005. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2021.127005.

De la Mora-Castañeda JG, Cibrián-Tovar D, Pérez-Vera OA. Neofusicoccum eucalyptorum (=Botryosphaeria eucalyptorum) y N. parvum: patógenos en plantaciones de eucalipto en México. Rev Chapingo ser cienc for ambient. 2014;20(3):187-97. doi: 10.5154/r.rchscfa.2014.03.012.

Delaye L, García Guzmán G, Heil M. Endophytes versus biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens-are fungal lifestyles evolutionarily stable traits? Fungal Divers. 2013;60:125-35. doi: 10.1007/s13225-013-0240-y.

Delgado-Cerrone L, Mondino-Hintz P, Alaniz-Ferro S. Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with stem canker, die-back and fruit rot on apples in Uruguay. Eur J Plant Pathol. 2016:146(3):637­55. doi: 10.1007/s10658-016-0949-z.

Díaz GA, Latorre BA, Ferrada E, Gutiérrez M, Bravo F, Lolas M. First Report of Diplodia mutila Causing Branch Dieback of English Walnut cv. Chandler in the Maule Region, Chile. Disease Notes. 2018;102(7):1451. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-11-17-1860-PDN.

Ellis MB, Ellis JP. Microfungi on land plants: an identification handbook. 2nd ed. Slough: The Richmond Publishing; 1997. 868p.

Espinoza JG, Briceño EX, Keith LM, Latorre BA. Canker and twig dieback of blueberry caused by Pestalotiopsis spp and a Truncatella sp in Chile. Plant Dis. 2008;92:1407-14.

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY. Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. St. Paul: APS; 1995. 1251p.

González P, Alaniz S, Montelongo MJ, Rauduviniche L, Rebellato J, Silvera-Pérez E, Mondino P.First Report of Pestalotiopsis clavispora Causing Dieback on Blueberry in Uruguay. Plant Dis. 2012;96(6):914. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-12-11-1070-PDN.

Guerber JC, Liu B, Correll JC, Johnston PR. Characterization of diversity in Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato by sequence analysis of two gene introns, mtDNA and intron RFLPs, and mating compatibility. Mycologia. 2003;95:872-95. doi: 10.2307/3762016.

Haase D, Larondelle N, Andersson E, Artmann M, Borgström S, Breuste J, Gomez-Baggethun E, Gren Å, Hampstead Z, Hanse NR, Kabisch N, Kremer P, Langemeyer J, Rall EL, McPhearson T, Pauleit S, Qureshi S, Schwarz N, Voigt A, Wurster D, Elmqvist T. A quantitative review of urban ecosystem service assessments: concepts, models, and implementation. AMBIO. 2014;43:413-33. doi: 10.1007/s13280-014-0504-0.

Haenzi M, Cochard B, Chablais R, Crovadore J, Lefort F. Neofusicoccum parvum, A New Agent of Sequoia Canker and Dieback Identified in Geneva, Switzerland. Forests. 2021;12:434. doi: 10.3390/f12040434.

Hertz CJ. Systematics and species delimitation in Pestalotia and Pestalotiopsis S S.L. (Amphisphaeriales, Ascomycota) [doctoral’s thesis]. Frankfurt: Universität in Frankfurt am Main; 2016. 203p.

Iturritxa E, Slippers B, Mesanza N, Wingfield MJ. First report of Neofusicoccum parvum causing canker and die-back of Eucalyptus in Spain. Australas Plant Dis Notes. 2011;6:57-9. doi: 10.1007/s13314-011-0019-5.

Jing X,Ebada SS, Proksch P.Pestalotiopsis a highly creative genus: chemistry and bioactivity of secondary metabolites. Fungal Divers. 2010;44:15-31. doi: 10.1007/s13225-010-0055-z.

Kurbetli I, Aydoğdu M, Sülü G, Woodward S, Demirci F. A potential role for Botryosphaeria parva (Anamorph Neofusicoccum parvum) in plane tree (Platanus orientalis) decline in İstanbul, Turkey. For Pathol. 2020;50(6). doi: 10.1111/efp.12653.

Leite Bastos DZ, Chapaval Pimentel I, Dykstra C, Kania CE, Gabardo J, Heleno De Oliveira B. Fungos associados à casca do caule de Platanus orientalis L. Revista Estudos de Biologia. 2004;26(54):37-41.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Gorenwald JZ, Xu J, Crous PW. Pesta-lotiopsis revisited. Stud Mycol. 2014;79:121-86.

Massonnet M, Figueroa-BalderasR, Galarneau ERA, Miki S, Lawrence DP,Sun Q, Wallis CM, BaumgartnerK, Cantu D. Neofusicoccum parvum Colonization of the Grapevine Woody Stem Triggers Asynchronous Host Responses at the Site of Infection and in the Leaves. Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:1117. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01117.

Mayorquin JS, Nouri MT, Peacock BB, TrouillasFP, Douhan GW, Kallsen C, Eskalen A. Identification,Pathogenicity, and Spore Trapping of Colletotrichum karstii Associated with Twig and Shoot Dieback in California. Plant Dis. 2019;103:1464-73.

Muñoz López MC, Cobos Suárez P, Martínez Saavedra G. La traqueomicosis de Diplodia sp. sobre Quercus sp. Bol San Veg Plagas. 1992;18:641-57.

Nesme X, Steenackers M, Steenackers V, Picard C, Ménard M, Ride S, Ridé M. Differential host-pathogen interactions among clones of poplar and strains of Xanthomonas populi pv. populi. Phytopathology. 1994;84:101-7.

Nowak DJ, Crane DE, Stevens JC. Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban For Urban Green. 2006;4:115-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2006.01.007.

Panconesi A. Canker stain of plane trees: a serious danger to urban plantings in Europe. J Plant Pathol. 1999;81(1):3-15.

Paolocci F, Rubini A, Granetti B, Arcioni S. Rapid molecular approach for reliable identification Tuber spp. ectomycorrhizae. FEMS Microbiol. 1999;28(1):23-30.

Parins L, Cazzola V, Larramendy P, Silver A, Coelho-Duarte A, Scattolini A. Evaluación fitosanitaria de Platanus spp. del arbolado urbano de Montevideo. Montevideo: CSIC; 2020. 12p.

Pelleret P, Crovadore J, Cochard B, Pasche S, Bovigny PY, Chablais R, Lefort F. Urban London plane tree dieback linked to fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae. Urban For Urban Green. 2017;22:74-83.

Pokorny JD. Urban tree risk management: a community guide to program design and implementation [Internet]. St. Paul: USDA Forest Service; 2003 [cited 2023 Jan 23]. 194p. Available from:

Ramírez M, Pérez LM, Montealegre JR. Susceptibilidad de cultivares de vid (Vitis viniferaL.) a Diplodia mutila. Cien Inv Agr. 2018;45(1):93-8.

Schmitt U, Lüer B, Dujesiefken D, Koch G. The Massaria disease of plane trees: its wood decay mechanism. IAWA J. 2014;35(4):395-406.

Sepúlveda P, Johnstone DM.A novel way of assessing plant vitality in urban trees. Forests. 2018;10(1):2. doi: 10.3390/f10010002.

Sessa L. Enfermedades de cultivos frutales del Uruguay: hongos endófitos, patógenos latentes y fitopatógenos [master’s thesis]. Montevideo (UY): Universidad de la República, PEDECIBA; 2016. 79p.

Sessa L, Abreo E, Bettucci L, Lupo S. Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with wood diseases of stone and pome fruit trees: symptoms and virulence across different hosts in Uruguay. Eur J Plant Pathol. 2016;146(3):519-30. doi: 10.1007/s10658-016-0936-4.

Slippers B,Wingfield MJ. Botryosphaeriaceaeas endophytes and latent pathogens of woody plants: diversity, ecology and impact. Fungal Biol Rev.2007:21(2-3):90-106. doi: 10.1016/j.fbr.2007.06.002.

Strobel GA, Ford E, Worapong J, Harper JK, Arif AM, Grant DM, Fung PCW, Chau RMW.Isopestacin, an isobenzofuranone from Pestalotiopsis microspora, possessing antifungal and antioxidant activities. Phytochemistry. 2002;60:179-83

Tello ML, Redondo C, Mateo-Sagasta E. Health estatus of plane trees (Platanus spp.) in Spain. J arboric. 2000;26(5):246-54.

Trees & Design Action Group. Trees in hard landscapes: a guide for delivery [Internet]. [place unknown]: CIHT; 2014 [cited 2023 Jan 23]. 159p. Available from:

Tsopelas P, Santini A, Wingfield MJ, de Beer W. Canker Stain: a lethal disease destroying iconic plane trees. Plant Dis. 2017;101:645-58.

Tubby KV, Pérez-Sierra A. Pests and pathogen threats to planes (Platanus) in Britain. Arboric J. 2015;37(2):85-98.doi: 10.1080/03071375.2015.1066558.

Tubby KV, Rose D. Problems on plane trees. Midlothian: Forest Research; 2009. 3p. (Pathology Advisory Note; No.7).

Turco E, Marianelli L, Vizzuso C, Ragazzi A, Gini R, Selleri B, Tucci R. First Report of Botryosphaeria dothidea on Sycamore, Red Oak, and English Oak in Northwestern Italy. Disease Notes. 2006;90(8):1106. doi: 10.1094/PD-90-1106B.

Von Arx JA. The Genera of Fungi Sporulating in Pure Culture. 3rd ed. Germany: J. Cramer; 1981. 424p.

Waller JM, Bridge PD. Recent advances in understanding Colletotrichum diseases of some tropical perennial crops. In: Prusky D, Freeman S, Dickman MB, editors. Colletotrichum: host specificity, pathology, and host-pathogen interaction. St. Paul: APS Press; 2009. p. 337-45.

White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Tylor J. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ, editors. PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. New York: Academic Press; 2012. p. 315-22.



How to Cite

Scattolini Rimada AC, Coelho Duarte AP, Torrano C, Cazzola V, Larramendy P, Silvera A, Parins L, Moreira V, Silvera Perez E. Fungi associated to Platanus x acerifolia in Uruguay and failure indicators. Agrocienc Urug [Internet]. 2023 Feb. 9 [cited 2023 Mar. 28];27:e989. Available from:



Plant protection