Agrociencia Uruguay <p><strong>Agrociencia es una revista arbitrada, editada en conjunto por la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad de la República y el Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria, Uruguay.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Milka Ferrer) (Niza Trujillo) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 04:51:19 -0800 OJS 60 Feeding sorghum dry distillers grains plus solubles to early-weaned beef calves <p>This study evaluated the effect of feeding sorghum dry distillers grains plus solubles (SDDGS) to early-weaned beef calves as an energy/protein source in a sorghum-grain-based diet. Twenty-four castrated Hereford calves (84.6 ± 11.0 kg) were assigned randomly to four rations differing in SDDGS concentrations (0, 130, 260, or 390 g/kg, dry matter [DM] basis), where the SDDGS replaced a mixture of sorghum ground grain (420 g/kg) and soybean meal (580 g/kg) at a balance that ensured a similar supply of crude protein (185 g/kg) and metabolizable energy (12.1 MJ/kg) in the ration. The feeding period lasted for 70 days, with animals individually fed <em>ad libitum </em>in three daily meals. Increasing SDDGS in the diet linearly increased DM intake, fiber and fat intake (P&lt;0.01), without affecting nitrogen intake or DM digestibility (P&gt;0.10). Higher SDDGS did not affect (P&gt;0.10) calves’ BW gain (1.13 kg/d, SE 0.05) or final BW (160.0 kg, SE 8.8), but it did result in a linear drop in gain-to-feed ratio (GF= −0.0012 × + 0.2679; P&lt;0.01). No differences were detected in animal behavior (eating, resting, or ruminating activity) due to treatments (P&gt;0.10). The observed net energy (NE) in the control diet was below the expected value based on feeding standards; as SDDGS replaced a higher proportion of sorghum grain and soybean meal in the control diet, the observed diet NE concentration declined linearly (P&lt;0.01). The highest replacement rate represented a reduction of 15% and 20% in diet NE for maintenance and BW gain, respectively.</p> Virginia Beretta, Alvaro Simeone, Oscar Bentancur, Maite Anzolabehere, Nicolás Cortazzo Copyright (c) 2024 Agrociencia Uruguay Mon, 19 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0800 Technical efficiency in beef cattle farming in Uruguay <p>Livestock farming is the agricultural activity with the greatest individual land-use, but it faces competition from other sectors for land, and is criticized for its environmental footprint. In this global context, Uruguay emerges as an important case study, boasting a long tradition and significance in the beef export sector. Enhancing livestock productivity is imperative to mitigate environmental impacts, and bolster farm competitiveness and food production. This study delves into the technical efficiency of cattle ranches focused on cow-calf production in Uruguay during the 2011 agricultural year, with nationwide and mandatory data coverage. Using data from the 2011 General Agriculture Census we estimate a translog stochastic production frontier model encompassing key inputs (livestock units, grazing area, and labor), along with control variables such as soil suitability and infrastructure improvements. Our findings underscore the potential to augment Uruguay's beef production by an average of 26.4%, harnessing existing resources and technology while improving ranch management. Moreover, variables like the extent of reliance on livestock farming as the primary source of income of the ranch, the use of outsourced services, foreign cattle ownership ratios, and agronomic and veterinary consultation exert noteworthy significant impacts on TE.</p> Emilio Aguirre, Federico García Suárez, Gabriela Sicilia Copyright (c) 2024 Agrociencia Uruguay Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0800 Fungicide strategies for Ramularia Leaf Spot control recommended in Uruguay and its residues in barley grains <p>Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) is primarily managed by foliar fungicide spraying, which can result in residues in the grain. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the risks these residues pose to consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fungicide management used for RLS control and their fungicide residues in barley grain. Four different alternatives of fungicide mixtures: fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole; pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole + chlorothalonil; prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin, and isopyrazam + azoxystrobin, in three spray timings: GS33, GS47 and GS33+GS47, were evaluated in five field experiments. An untreated and a fully protected treatment were included. Fungicide residues, disease severity, control efficacy, area under the disease progress curve, and plump grain yield were calculated. All fungicide strategies adhered to food safety, complying with the Maximum Residue Limits established by <em>Codex</em> and the European Union. Effectiveness varied based on RLS development, application time, and number of applications. Fungicide treatments applied at GS33+GS47 were the most effective as the highest severity levels were observed at the stage after GS47 under the conditions studied. Plump grain yield only showed minimal differences in the late epidemic. The study emphasized the low risk of fungicide presence in grains, favoring efficacy when selecting RLS management options. Any changes in management or regulations should be carefully reviewed to maintain findings. The research underscored the compatibility of recommended fungicide treatments with food safety standards, highlighting the balance between disease control efficacy and consumer safety.</p> Cintia Palladino, Carlos A. Pérez, Lucia Pareja, Andrés Pérez-Parada, Jorge Franco, Silvia Pereyra Copyright (c) 2024 Agrociencia Uruguay Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0800