Effect of Alternative Techniques of Maceration on the Color and Composition of Red Wines of Six Grape Varieties
The aim of this study was to evaluate the color and phenolic composition of the red wines of six varieties: Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Marselan and Tannat. The effects of a winemaking by traditional maceration, and a winemaking by delayed extraction of anthocyanins and extended maceration (EDA+ME) were compared. The wines were produced in two consecutive vintages, performing two replicates of each winemaking procedure for each variety. Tannat, Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Marselan were vinified in both years (2013 and 2014), while Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon were considered in one year (2013). The winemaking techniques modified the phenolic content of wines. The winemaking by EDA+ME gave lower contents of anthocyanins and less color intensity in most of wines. However, the EDA+ME significantly increased the presence of low molecular weight tannins, which can have a significant impact on the future stability of color and other sensory characteristics of wines. The grape variety was the factor that influenced more on the characteristics of wines, beyond the differences determined by the vinification techniques and the degree of maturity of the grapes used in each case.